Everything you need to know about Printed Circuit Board Assemblies


Printed Circuit Board assembly is the integration of circuit boards, components, and electronic accessories. Integrating the assembly workflow with production and PCB manufacturing processes is crucial to meet the highest quality standards. The Printed Circuit Board Assembly process itself comprises both manual and automated steps. Before addressing step 1, it is important to understand the basic PCBs and associated components involved.

Basic variations of PCBs

  • Single-sided PCBs: Copper layer installed only on one side; the other is earmarked for components
  • Double-sided/Multilayer PCBs: Two or more copper layers installed on their sides with uncompromised circuit integrity

Common types of PCB bases:

  • Rigid PCBs: Inflexible bases made of materials like fiberglass, epoxies or phenolics.
  • Flexible PCBs: Flexible bases made of high-temperature plastic such as Kapton.
  • Metal Core PCBs: Metalcore bases that efficiently spread heat to protect sensitive board components.

Considering the fragile nature of PCBs, they must be heavily safeguarded against rough usage, periodical wear-and-tear, or harsh environmental conditions. Selecting the right mounting technologies can go a long way to ensure a smooth assembly.

Popular mounting technologies

Surface Mount Technology:  At the time of PCB Manufacturing and assembly, resistors or diodes are placed onto the board’s surface for small size components and integrated circuits 

Thru-Hole Technology: Plugs leads and wires through holes on the board; perfect-fit for large components such as capacitors.

Major steps in PCB assembly

Step 1: Solder Paste

The very first step of Printed Circuit Board Assembly is the application of solder paste to the board. Assemblers apply the paste to specific parts where components will eventually be placed. In the case of wave soldering, the solder is provided by the respective machine.

Step 2: Pick and Place

The Pick and Place machine is generally a robotic device that places the surface mount components on the PCB.

Step 3: Reflow Soldering

After the solder paste and components are in place, step 3 is about all solidification which ensures that components remain on the board. 

Step 4: Inspection 

The assembled board must be tested to identify poor connection quality or short circuits so that its functionality can meet stringent quality control standards. 

  • Visual inspection
  • X-ray Inspection
Step 5: Testing

From running simulations to review assembly effectiveness to monitoring performance of individual components, testing must be comprehensively performed.

  • Automated Optical Inspection Testing can amplify the accuracy and consistency of production since they easily overcome the barriers faced by manual practices. It helps in keeping costs as low as possible by detecting faults at an early stage.
  • In-Circuit Testing ensures individual measurement of each component to make sure that it performs as per specifications. They are best suited for high volume production lines.
  • Functional Testing is performed at the final stage of the manufacturing process. It creates a simulated environment to test the whole PCB assembly before the product reaches the market.

Critical failures in PCB assembly

Failure of component design

While assembling, components may be incorrectly placed, which can lead to rising production costs. In other cases, space constraints or improper board thickness can lead to overheating, which can lead to burned-out parts, leakage of fluids, or soldering problems.

Wear and tear

However durable a PCB may be, it has a limited survival timeline. Due to failing PCB components, a lot of rework – including inspection and analysis – may be required. Eventually, there will be a need to replace the system entirely.

Environmental conditions

The delicate nature of PCB components makes them incapable of withstanding varied environmental conditions. From moisture and debris to dust and accidental impact caused by harsh weather, they cause failures such as power surges or thermal stress.


In the PCB Manufacturing and assembly process, there are many individual stages that must seamlessly occur for the final product to be of high quality. The steps involved in each one must be compatible with the next so that the production journey is clear, smooth, and as quick as possible. It is also important to ensure that any manufacturing or production-related problems are immediately identified in order to prevent any failures to the overall output.

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